425th Anniversary of Printing Works in Latvia Date of Issue : 22 October 2013
The stamp depicts the autograph of the founder of Riga's first printing house Niclas Mollyn and the oldest surviving printing press in the world from the Plantin-Moretus Museum in Antwerp.
Book printing in Riga began in 1588, when Dutchman Niclas Mollyn established the first printing and publishing company in the territory of Latvia. Mollyn arrived in the territory of Latvia from Antwerp to open a printing house in Riga, Krāmu Street. Two works were printed already in the first year of operation, one of which - the Carmen Gratulatorium of Riga resident Anselms Bocija - has survived to the present day. Mollyn printed more than 180 books in Riga, which were published mainly in German and Latin. Three books were printed in Latvian, among them the handbook of the Lutheran Church.
200 Years of the Victory of the Allied Armies in the Battle of Leipzig
Date of Issue : 19 October 2013
The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations (16–19 October 1813) was fought by the coalition armies of Russia, Prussia, Austria and Sweden against the French army of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, at Leipzig, Saxony
Slovak Minerals – Sceptre Quartz from Šobov Date of Issue : 11 October 2013
Quartz (SiO2) is one of the most common minerals in nature forming hexagonal columnar crystals finished with planes of trapezohedron or dipyramid.
A druse of crystals of ore minerals (sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena) with quartz and calcite from Banská Štiavnica is depicted on FDC. And a crystalline structure of euchroite – secondary arsenate of copper from Ľubietová, which is one of 19 Slovak minerals first found and noted down in Slovakia, represents a motif of the FDC cancellation.
Slovak Minerals - Precious Opal from Dubnik Date of Issue : 11 October 2013
Opal is an amorphous substance, hydrated silicon dioxide (SiO2.nH2O), with a variable amount of water (3-21%). Opal can be found in fillings of fissures in Late Tertiary volcanic rocks – andesites in areas between Červenica and Dubník in Slanské vrchy Hills.
A crystal filling of fissure in basalt – aragonite from the area of Bulhary near Fiľakovo in southern Slovakia is depicted on FDC. And a crystalline structure of libethenite – secondary phosphate of copper from Ľubietová, which is one of the 19 Slovak minerals first found and noted down in Slovakia, represents a motif of the FDC cancellation.
Raimond Valgre (7 October, 1913 – 31. 12. 1949, Tallinn) was born in the family of a shoemaker in Riisipere in North-Western in Estonia. He became one of the best known Estonian song writers whose songs are known throughout the country. During his lifetime he wrote nearly a hundred songs and most of them were about nature and love. During World War II, he was a member of the orchestra of the 8th Estonian Rifle Corps of the Red Army, and as a result of his service on the Eastern Front he became an alcoholic after the war. His music was banned in 1948 by the Soviet authorities. The revival of Valgre's compositions began in the Soviet Union of the 1960s. A biographical feature film about Valgre Need vanad armastuskirjad ("Those Old Love Letters") was shot in 1992.
4-1 : Jia Yi (200 - 168 BC)
4-2 : Sima Xiangru (about 179 - 118 BC)
4-3 : Yang Xiong (53 BC - 18 AD)
4-4 : Ban Gu (32 - 92 AD)
The four figures shown on this set of stamps are prominent cifu writers of the Han. Cifu or fu, (sentimental or descriptive composition, often rhymed) was the most representative literary form of the Han Dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD).
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